International Journal of Health Studies http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs <div style="width: 100%;"> <div style="float: left;"><a href="/upload/images/jeld1.png"><img style="display: block; margin-right: 20px;" src="/upload/images/jeld11.png" alt="IJHS"></a> <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="width: 90%; margin-top: 20px;" src="/upload/creativecommon.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The International Journal of Health Studies (The Official Journal of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences) intends to publish an open-access, online-only issue on behavioral sciences. It is a peer-reviewed, scientific publication that welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts directed to the field of behavioral medicine including: understandings of disease prevention, health promotion, health disparities, identification of health risk factors, and interventions designed to reduce health risks, ameliorate health disparities, enhancing all aspects of health. The journal seeks to advance knowledge and theory in these domains in all segments of the population and across the lifespan, in local, national, and global contexts, and with an emphasis on the synergies that exist between biological, psychological, psychosocial, and structural factors as they related to these areas of study and across health states.</p> <p>The International Journal of Health Studies publishes Original Articles, Review Articles, Brief Reports, Perspectives, Editorials and Correspondence. Manuscripts are accepted with the understanding that they have not been and will not be published elsewhere substantially in any format.</p> <p>IJHS is accredited as a Scientific Research Journal by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Medical Journals Commission).</p> <h2>Journal Summery</h2> <p>Title: The International Journal of Health Studies</p> <p>Print ISSN: 2423-6594</p> <p>Online ISSN: 2423-6594</p> <p>Chairperson: Dr. Seyed Abbas Mousavi</p> <p>Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Reza Chaman</p> <p>Publisher: Shahroud University of Medical Sciences</p> <p>Email: <a href="mailto:ijhs@shmu.ac.ir">ijhs@shmu.ac.ir</a></p> <p>Website: <a href="https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/">https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/</a></p> <p>Aims and Scopes:</p> <p>The International Journal of Health Studies intends to publish articles on behavioral sciences including disease prevention, health promotion, health disparities, identification of health risk factors, and interventions designed to reduce health risks, ameliorate health disparities, enhancing all aspects of health. The journal seeks to advance knowledge and theory in these domains in all segments of the population and across the lifespan, in local, national, and global contexts, and with an emphasis on the synergies that exist between biological, psychological, psychosocial, and structural factors as they related to these areas of study and across health states.</p> </div> </div> Shahroud University of Medical siences en-US International Journal of Health Studies 2423-6594 <p>The <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em><strong><a href="/upload/forsubmission.pdf">Copyright Form&nbsp;</a></strong></em></span>&nbsp;should be downloaded and signed by corresponding author in the fourth step "upload supplementary files"&nbsp;during submission process.</p> <p>After acceptance,&nbsp;copyright form should be downloaded and signed by all authors one by one ( "summery --&gt; supp. file"&nbsp;part&nbsp;and click on &nbsp;"add a supplementary file" link).&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<em><strong><a href="/upload/forsubmission.pdf"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Copyright Form</span>&nbsp;</a></strong></em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> the The Effect of Four Months of TRX Training on Lumbar Bone Mineral Density and its Relationship with Serum Adiponectin Level in Osteopenic Women http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/840 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease augmenting the risk of fractures. The biological mechanisms of bone osteogenic response to mechanical loads are not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the effects of four months of TRX training on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship with serum adiponectin in osteopenic women.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this quasi-experimental study, 30 osteopenic women were selected by purposive sampling and then randomly divided into two groups of TRX (n=15), and control (n=15). The experimental group performed TRX exercise protocol for four months, three sessions a week, and 45-60 minutes per session. At the beginning and end of the intervention, blood samples were obtained to determine serum adiponectin using a specific ELISA kit (Bio vendor, Czech Republic). The bone mineral density of the lumbar was assessed by 2D Dexa instrument (LEXXOS DIGITAL, USA). Data analysis was performed applying paired and independent sample student t-test and Pearson correlation in SPSS 20 software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Lumbar BMD (Pvalue=0.000) and serum adiponectin level (Pvalue=0.000) significantly increased in the TRX group compared to the control. In within-group comparison, significant elevations were observed in lumbar BMD (Pvalue=0.000) and serum adiponectin level (Pvalue=0.004) after TRX exercise. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between lumbar BMD and serum adiponectin in osteopenic women (Pvalue=0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: According to the results, it seems that TRX exercise can improve lumbar BMD and serum adiponectin levels in osteopenic women.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:&nbsp;Osteopenia, TRX exercise, Lumbar bone mineral density, Adiponectin</p> Azadeh Saber Shahraki 1 Abbas Salehikia 1* Maryam Banparvari 1 Zahra Raghi 1 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Health Studies 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 10.22100/ijhs.v7i2.840 Low Birth Weight of Newborns and Its Association with Demographic and Socio-economic Determinants: Findings from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) Bangladesh 2019 http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/837 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Low Birth Weight (LBW) is considered as one of the major public health problems which is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality among newborn babies in Bangladesh. This study aimed to examine the current prevalence of LBW and its association with different socio-economic and demographic determinants in the context of Bangladesh.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;The cross-sectional data for this study were extracted from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) Bangladesh 2019, which was carried out in 2019 by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) in collaboration with UNICEF Bangladesh, as part of the Global MICS Program. To examine the association of LBW with other selected determinants, Chi-square (χ2) test was performed and a logistic regression model was used to explore the net effect of determinants on LBW using odds ratio (OR).</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Using the sub-sample of nationally representative data, the study reveals that the prevalence of LBW in Bangladesh was 13.6%. The highest prevalence of LBW was found among mothers whose ages were less than 20 years, who did not receive prenatal care, who were not educated, who were from poor socio-economic conditions. LBW was also severe among infants with the highest birth order and multiple births. This study also identified the mother’s age at the time of childbirth, the status of receiving prenatal care, type of birth (single or multiple), birth order, educational status of the mother, wealth index, and place of residence are the most important determinants that are significantly associated with LBW status of newborns.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>&nbsp;This study suggests that the Government should take necessary initiatives to address the risk factors which are responsible for the high prevalence of LBW in Bangladesh. This study will also deliver the degree of success in public health policy in Bangladesh and aims to help outline future tactics to lessen the prevalence of LBW.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;Low birth weights (LBW), Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), Bangladesh.</p> Md. Nure Alam Siddiqi 1* Abdul Muyeed 2 Md. Nuruzzaman Haque 3 Md. Abdul Goni 3 Supti Chakrabarty Shadhana 4 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Health Studies 2021-02-17 2021-02-17 37 42 10.22100/ijhs.v7i1.837 Socio-economic Status and Infant Mortality Rate http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/834 <p><strong>Backgrounds</strong>: For more than forty years medical sociology has explained numerous examples of the social patterning of disease. They have shown a strong association between health and socioeconomic status (SES). One of the most important indicators of development in each country is the infant mortality rate, and SES is main determinant for this indicator. This study has evaluated the impact of SES on infant mortality in Shahroud, 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In This cross-sectional study, the information of 4242 children born in 2017 was extracted from the electronic health record with the help of the Data Collection Form. In the first part, the information was about demographics and health care of the household. The second part was related to the household economic status, it was asked to the mothers by phone or in person, including questions about the equipment and tools used by the household. The PCA method (Principal Component Analysis) was used to determine the socio-economic status, and finally, the households were divided into two high and low socio-economic groups. Confounding factors such as mothers’ gravidity, history of congenital anomalies in previous children, mother age, history of abortion, type of delivery, the interval of pregnancies, were also used in the study to investigate the effect of SES on infant mortality.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Based on our findings, out of 4242 children born in 2017, a total of 21 children died before one year old. The chance of death in children of households belonging to the low SES was 2.93 times more than high SES (CI95% = 1.14-7.54).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: In general, improving households’ socio-economic status can be very effective in reducing child mortality. Government, non-government, and NGO supports can help to improve the economic situation of households and they can help poor families to receive some expensive health services. It is also recommended to promote family health literacy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Socio-economic status, Principal component analysis,&nbsp;Infant, Mortality, Shahroud.</p> Mahshid Gholami Taramsari 1 Seyed Reza Moeini 1* Shahla Kazemipour 2 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Health Studies 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 33 36 10.22100/ijhs.v7i1.834 The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Patients with Chronic Pain in Ahvaz http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/827 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic pain causes various problems and agonies including emotional disorders as well as limited personal, social, and occupational functioning. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with chronic pain.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research method was experimental with a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up design and a control group. The study population comprised all patients with chronic pain who were referred to the medical centers of Ahvaz in 2018. Using convenience sampling, we selected 30 patients willing to participate in the study and randomly divided them into experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups. Both were groups tested at the beginning and end of the intervention program with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The experimental group underwent nine sessions (90-minute sessions per week) of acceptance and commitment therapy. The follow-up was performed after 60 days. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean ± SD of the post-test scores of depression, anxiety, and stress was (12.03±2.82), (10.50±2.34), and (12.50±1.72) in the experimental group and (21.33±1.84), (19.20±4.12), and (26.71±1.18) in the control group, which had significant differences with each other. The results showed that acceptance and commitment therapy effectively decreased depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with chronic pain in the experimental group (Pvalue&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Acceptance and commitment therapy can be used as an effective intervention program to reduce depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with chronic pain.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Chronic pain.</p> Mandana Yadavari 1 Farah Naderi 2* Behnam Makvandi 3 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Health Studies 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 28 32 10.22100/ijhs.v7i1.827 The The Social Adjustment and Depression during Outbreak of COVID-19 among Iranian People http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/826 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> The sudden outbreak of Corona has created public depression and social changes, which affected countries and communities in terms of psychosocial issues. Social adjustment and physical activity play a very significant role to improve mental health. The purpose of this study was to compare social adjustment and depression during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Iranian employees regarding physical activity participation before the outbreak.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> The research method was a causal-comparative type. The statistical population of the study included all men and women over the age of 25 workings in governmental agencies, among which 403 people participated in the online survey by random method. The data about age, occupational, family, and educational condition were collected by demographic questionnaire. Using the short-form depression questionnaire (BDI-13), the depression during an outbreak of COVID-19 was evaluated. A 25-item social adjustment questionnaire (self-made questionnaire) was used for collecting the data of social adjustment specific to new social norms caused by COVID-19.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Data analysis using ANOVA showed that active individuals had higher social adjustment than inactive individuals (F = 10.398). Social adjustment was also statistically significant related to depression (r = -0.165).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> Overall, applying physical activity with the observance of the guidelines approved by the Ministry of Health and other reference institutions will be a great help for the promotion of the social adjustments and mental health.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> COVID-19, Social adjustment, Physical activity, Depression</p> Faezeh Zamanian 1* Elham Foroozandeh 2 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Health Studies 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 22 27 10.22100/ijhs.v7i1.826 A Multi Region Neurodegenerative Changes in Methamphetamine Dependence Reveal by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Psychological Aspects http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/823 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit psychostimulant that is widely abused in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic METH abuse leads to neurodegenerative changes in the human brain. These include damage to dopamine and serotonin axons, loss of gray matter accompanied by hypertrophy of the white matter, and microgliosis in different brain areas.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), Creatine (Cre), Choline (Cho), Myo-inositol (Ml), were obtained in the dopamine circuit (Ventral Tegmental Area, Nucleus Accumbens, Substantia nigra, Striatum, Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus) of the brain in participants in 30 abstinent methamphetamine-addicted people with psychosis (METHp+), and 10 healthy controls (HCs) (age ranges of 18 to 50 years old). Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and analyzed using a five-factor model. All participants were also assessed for physical and mental illnesses as well as recent substance use.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The METHp+ group displayed robust alteration in basic metabolite concentration levels (NAA, cho, Cr, mI, and GLX) relative to HCs. This suggests that cellular metabolism is altered in both conditions but in METHp+ group is seeing more dramatic changes. Significant decrease in the concentration of NAA metabolites (mean of 18.56) in the methamphetamine group with high psychological symptoms (mean of 111.9) in the studied areas compared to the control group which is a neurotransmitter and biomarker, indicates chronic neurological degeneration in the test areas and its relationship with the incidence of mental disorders in these individuals (Pvalue&lt;0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> These data support the assumption that cellular abnormalities differ between methamphetamine addiction psychosis and healthy controls people despite not different in normal imaging acquisition.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Methamphetamine, Abstinence, Neurodegeneration, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dopamine circuit.</p> Javad Sheikhi Kouhsar 1 Fariborz Faeghi 1 Hamaid Kalalian Moghadam 2* Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Health Studies 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 17 21 10.22100/ijhs.v7i1.823 The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation with Imagery-based Relaxation on the Mental Health and Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Women with a First Unwanted Pregnancy http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/818 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study aims to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation intervention with imagery-based relaxation technique on the mental health and maternal-fetal attachment in women with a first unwanted pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> From all the pregnant women referred to the clinics of Semnan city, 60 individuals were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. The mothers of the experimental group received the corresponding intervention, while the control group was only provided with normal care. Before and after the intervention, the general health and maternal-fetal attachment questionnaires were filled by the individuals.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that a relaxation intervention period can significantly improve the mental health and maternal-fetal attachment as well.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the present results, it can be concluded that the current intervention can be used as a low-cost and non-pharmacological method to improve the psychological issues and arrive at a higher maternal-fetal attachment during the pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Relaxation, Mental health, Attachment, Pregnancy.</p> Mansoureh Mokaberian 1* Houriyhe Dehghanpouri 1 Najmeh Faez 2 Elham Vosadi 1 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Health Studies 2021-01-02 2021-01-02 11 16 10.22100/ijhs.v7i1.818 The Effects of Neurofeedback and Play Therapy on Dynamic Balance in 4-10 years old Children with Diplegic Spastic Cerebral Palsy http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/795 <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><em>:</em> Dynamic balance is one of the most important challenges for kids who suffer from cerebral palsy especially diplegic spastic ones. Therefore, this study designed to compare the neurofeedback and play therapy training on dynamic balance in 4-10 years old diplegic spastic cerebral palsy kids.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>:</em> Quasi-experimental with three groups and pre-posttest design. This study has involved 26 spastic diplegia cerebral palsy children in 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> grades, according to the GMFCS protocol. The researcher performed first, initial tests to evaluate the patient’s equilibrium level, by using the PBS assessment instruments. To investigate the study goals, the patients were divided into two groups with a two-study method of neurofeedback and play therapy. Each group has done their special exercises during 10 sessions in 2 weeks for the first group and 20 sessions in 4 weeks for the second time and finally, the PBS test was repeated. Primary data were analyzed using descriptive and argumentative statistics by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, independent t-test, Wilcoxon test, and one-way and two-way ANOVA test. All of these analyzes were done by SPSS software.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>:</em> The study’s results confirm that play therapy has shown a meaningful effect (Pvalue=0.042), while the effect of the neurofeedback method does not represent any legal effect on one’s dynamic balance. In the case of the dynamic balance, the play therapy group has shown better operation in post-tests compared with the neurofeedback group.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong>: As results show the play therapy method has shown a meaningful effect on dynamic balance so it has been suggested to improving elderlies balance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cerebral palsy, Neurofeedback, Play therapy, Statistic equivalent, Dynamic equivalent.</p> Maryam Emami Korande 1 Amirhossein Barati 2 Mina Haghighi 3* Javid Peimani 4 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Health Studies 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 7 10 10.22100/ijhs.v7i1.795 The Effect of Moderating Noise Pollution on Premature Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Responses in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/812 <p><strong>Background</strong><em>:</em> The aim of the study was to determine the effect of moderating noise pollution on premature infants' behavioral and physiological responses in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>110 premature infants hospitalized in the NICU ward of hospitals in Tehran were selected. All the infants who met the research criteria were allocated and assigned to the experimental and control group (n = 55). The sampling method was non-probability and convenient. In the first section of time, each infant with inclusion criteria, inserted in the control group and then in the second section of time, infant with inclusion criteria placed in the experiment group. In the first section, the educated nurse measured the L<sub>Aeq</sub>, LC, LA, infants’ behavioral responses, and physiological responses. In the second section, noise modifying interventions were implemented in the experimental group for 6 weeks, and then L<sub>Aeq</sub>, LC, LA, infants’ behavioral responses and physiological responses were measured with the same methods.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Infants' heart rate in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (Pvalue&lt;0.05), and atrial blood O<sub>2</sub> Saturation was significantly higher than the control group (Pvalue&lt;0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number of crying, sleeping, and Moro reflex of premature infants in the two groups. Also, the sound-pressure level in the C-weighted network in the experimental group was lower than the control group (Pvalue=0.021). The sound-pressure level of the C-weighted network was obtained in the same way (Pvalue=0.008).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Based on the results, moderating noise pollution in NICU can lead to heart rate deceleration and atrial blood O<sub>2</sub> Saturation acceleration in premature infants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Noise pollution, Premature infants, Behavioral responses, Physiological responses, Neonatal Intensive care unit.</p> Mahboobeh Khajeh 1 Fatemeh Bahramnezhad 2* Shadi Dehghanzadeh 3 Nasrin Fadaee Aghdam 1 Hossein Bagheri 1 Robabe Baha 4 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Health Studies 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 1 6 10.22100/ijhs.v7i1.812 The Effectiveness of Choice Theory Education on Reducing Work-Family Conflict of Women http://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/808 <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><em>: One of the most significant issues of areas of work and family interactions is work-family conflict. Dominant traditional and stereotypical attitudes toward women’s roles and doing institutionalized house chores provoke problems such as a decline in organizational performance and adverse physical, mental, and behavioral effects in women. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of choice theory education on reducing work-family conflict of women working in the hospital. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>: The quasi-experimental research conducted in a pre-test and post-test control group design aimed to examine the effectiveness of the choice theory education on reducing work-family conflict of 12 participants in the experimental group and 12 participants in the control group who were selected by multistage cluster sampling. &nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: The result of Covariance analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control group in post-test (Pvalue&lt; 0.001, F=50.13).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: &nbsp;It can be concluded that the education of choice theory's concepts can be used as one of the strategies of reducing the work-family conflict to confront its negative consequences in organizations and families.</em></p> Abolfazl Hatami Varzaneh 1 Farahnaz Rostami 2* Elham Fathi 1 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Health Studies 2020-12-06 2020-12-06 10.22100/ijhs.v6i4.808