International Journal of Health Studies https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs <div style="width: 100%;"> <div style="float: left;"><a href="https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/upload/images/jeld1.png"><img style="display: block; margin-right: 20px;" src="https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/upload/images/jeld11.png" alt="IJHS" /></a> <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/" rel="license"><img style="width: 90%; margin-top: 20px;" src="https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/upload/creativecommon.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The International Journal of Health Studies (The Official Journal of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences) intends to publish an open-access, online-only issue on behavioral sciences. It is a peer-reviewed, scientific publication that welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts directed to the field of behavioral medicine including: understandings of disease prevention, health promotion, health disparities, identification of health risk factors, and interventions designed to reduce health risks, ameliorate health disparities, enhancing all aspects of health. The journal seeks to advance knowledge and theory in these domains in all segments of the population and across the lifespan, in local, national, and global contexts, and with an emphasis on the synergies that exist between biological, psychological, psychosocial, and structural factors as they related to these areas of study and across health states.</p> <p>The International Journal of Health Studies publishes Original Articles, Review Articles, Brief Reports, Perspectives, Editorials and Correspondence. Manuscripts are accepted with the understanding that they have not been and will not be published elsewhere substantially in any format.</p> <p>IJHS is accredited as a Scientific Research Journal by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Medical Journals Commission).</p> <h2>Journal Summery</h2> <p>Title: The International Journal of Health Studies</p> <p>Print ISSN: 2423-6594</p> <p>Online ISSN: 2783-2023</p> <p>Chairperson: Dr. Seyed Abbas Mousavi</p> <p>Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Hamid Kallalian Moghaddam</p> <p>Publisher &amp; Owner: Shahroud University of Medical Sciences</p> <p>Email: <a href="mailto:ijhs@shmu.ac.ir">ijhs@shmu.ac.ir</a></p> <p>Website: <a href="https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/">https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/</a></p> </div> </div> Shahroud University of Medical siences en-US International Journal of Health Studies 2423-6594 <p>The <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em><strong><a href="/upload/forsubmission.pdf">Copyright Form&nbsp;</a></strong></em></span>&nbsp;should be downloaded and signed by corresponding author in the fourth step "upload supplementary files"&nbsp;during submission process.</p> <p>After acceptance,&nbsp;copyright form should be downloaded and signed by all authors one by one ( "summery --&gt; supp. file"&nbsp;part&nbsp;and click on &nbsp;"add a supplementary file" link).&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<em><strong><a href="/upload/forsubmission.pdf"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Copyright Form</span>&nbsp;</a></strong></em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Development and Validation of a Premarital Education Program based on Mental Health Literacy https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/1019 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;">Background: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;">A successful marriage is essential to the formation of a healthy family. Choosing a spouse is the first and most crucial step in establishing a successful marriage. This study aimed to develop and validate a mental health literacy-based premarital education program.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;">Methods:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;"> To conduct a qualitative inquiry, the current study used the Delphi technique. The statistical population of this study consists of psychologists and premarital counseling professionals. The present study's sample consists of 47 individuals who were recruited using a method of purposive sampling. Using a questionnaire developed by the researchers, the components of the concept of mental health literacy were examined. Using Kendall's coordination coefficient, the level of consensus among Delphi method participants was determined. Then, Lawshe's content validity ratio was utilized to assess the content validity of the program based on this component.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;">Results:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;"> Seven components of physical and physiological health, mental and cognitive health, emotional and mental health, social and communication health, economic and financial health, spiritual and religious health, and mental health literacy were identified based on the results of two questionnaire stages using the Delphi method. In addition, the results reveal that the value of Kendall's coefficient for all components is 0.29 and the significance level for Kendall's coordination coefficient is 0.05, indicating that there is a significant level of agreement among the Delphi method participants. The index of content ratio (CVR) for the educational program was greater than the value calculated using the Lawshe method (0.85). Therefore, the content validity of the mental health literacy educational program is satisfactory.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;">Conclusions:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;">&nbsp;Considering the validity of the educational program, it is recommended that it be implemented in family education centers.</span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;">Keywords:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #252525;"> Premarital education, Educational program, Mental health literacy.</span></p> Elahe Rezaei 1 Mahboobeh Taher 2* Zahra Shabani 3 Abbas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh 4 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Health Studies 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 10.22100/ijhs.v9i2.1019 The Suicide Attempt and Related Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast of Iran https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/1003 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Suicide attempt is an important psychological problem all over the world, and its upward trend is alarming due to its harmful consequences on family, society, and the economy. This study was conducted with the aim of presenting a picture of suicide attempts and related factors in Northeastern Iran.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>In this cross-sectional descriptive analytical&nbsp; study, the trauma registration information forms of the ministry of health of Iran, were used in the emergency department(ED) of three hospitals in the city of Shahrood within&nbsp; two Iranian calender years. The data of people who attempted suicide and referred to ED of these hospitals were collected&nbsp; by trained nurses.&nbsp; Analysis was done by IBM SPSS statistics version 23. The significant level was considered 0.05.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>The findings showed that 793 individuals with suicide attempts were referred to the ED of hospitals within 2 years. Among them 321 (40.5%) were men and 470 (59.3%) were women. The rate of suicide attempt among men was&nbsp; 125.87/100,000,among women 186.00/100,000,totally155.84 /100,000. Suicide attempted in the age group under 30 (71.2%) was more than in other age groups and complete suicide was significantly more in men. The ratio of male : female suicide attempts was 0.68. In the age group of 10 to 60, the percentage of suicide attempts was higher in women than in men, but in the age group of 60 to 80, the percentage of suicide attempts was higher in men, and this difference was significantly higher (p-value=0.035). In addition, there was a significant difference in the place of suicide attempts in men and women (p-value=0.029).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Our results is more than Iranian average. Considering youth and teenagers, especially girls are vulnerable to suicide attempts, are teachers of a happy and dynamic generation in the near future. Effective preventive interventions are essential. These local interventions can be designed to provide psychological consultation and mental health educational services to families and individuals, and continuous monitoring of people with a history of suicide attempts is crucial.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Suicide attempt, Iran, Shahroud, trauma, women suicide attemp</p> Tahereh NaseriBooriabadi 1 Tahereh Jalali2 Zahra Kordi 3 Mansooreh Fateh 4 Farideh Sadeghian 5* Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Health Studies 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 10.22100/ijhs.v9i2.1003 Evaluation of Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Indices in Professional Drivers https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/1001 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>Professional drivers are populations that are exposed to a sedentary lifestyle. A sedentary lifestyle can cause anthropometric, metabolic, and cardiological disorders in individuals. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the anthropometric and cardiometabolic disorders in professional drivers in Shahroud.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was performed on 984 professional drivers (who drove more than 8 hours a day) in Shahroud in 2020. Required information includes metabolic factors (LDL, HDL, cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, and blood pressure) and anthropometric factors (BMI, Waist circumference, Hip Circumference, and Wrist Circumference) extracted from their health records.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results: </strong>In professional drivers, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 41.6% and 18.9%, respectively. 77.8% had abnormal waist circumference, 3.8% had FBS≥126 mg/dl, 32.8% had LDL more than 130 mg/dl, 31.7% Cholesterol more than 200 mg/dl and 81.8% drivers had HDL less than 45 mg/dl. The mean level of cardiometabolic factors such as SBP, DBP, FBS, and cholesterol was 132.20, 80.56, 97.13, and 190.35, respectively. Also, from view point of anthropometric indices, the average weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, wrist circumference, and BMI was 80.22, 98.59, 103.30, 18.21, and 27.02, respectively.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusions:&nbsp; </strong>According to the findings, professional drivers are exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors including FBS, cholesterol, LDL, and blood pressure, as well as anthropometric disorders including increased body mass index, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference.</p> Salman Daliri 1 Arghavan Feyzmanesh 2 Mojtaba Keikha 3 Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi 4* Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Health Studies 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 10.22100/ijhs.v9i2.1001 Determining the Effective Factors in Women's Tendency to Drugs and Psychotropic Substances https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/982 <p><strong>Background:</strong> addiction is one of the most critical problems that has reached a global scale, and has gone beyond the borders of health care, and has become a psychological, social, and family problem. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the causes of women's tendency to drugs and psychotropic substances in Gorgan.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research method is cross-sectional and descriptive. The statistical population included all women who came to addiction treatment clinics in Gorgan in 2019. The sampling method was available, and the sample size was 60 people. A questionnaire on the causes of women's addiction to drugs was used to collect data. Data were analyzed for their univariate nature using descriptive statistics (Frequency, percentage, central indicators, and dispersion).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of data analysis showed that among the seven factors studied in the causes of women's tendency to drugs and psychosis, the important factors are psychological, cultural, economic, social, physical, religious, and geographical, respectively. Addiction is a complex and polyhedral disease. And in this study, the psychological factor was one of the most important factors in women's tendency to drugs and psychotropic substances.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Therefore, it seems that understanding the underlying factors causes the process of prevention, identification, treatment, and follow-up to be purposefully planned.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Addiction, Psychotropic, Substances, Women.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Mahnaz Babaei 1* Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Health Studies 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 10.22100/ijhs.v9i2.982 The Effectiveness of Mental Health Literacy Program in Promoting Emotion Regulation and Mate Selection Attitudes in People on the Verge of Marriage https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/974 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> In a successful marriage, many psychological and physical needs can be met in a safe environment. Choosing a mate is the first and most important step in the marriage process. Towards this end, the present study examined the effect of a mental health literacy program on improving emotion regulation and attitudes towards the selection of a mate in individuals on the verge of marriage.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods:</strong> The present study applied research in terms of a quasi-experimental research method of pre-test-post-test with a control group. The statistical population of this study included all girls and boys on the eve of marriage in Shahroud in 1400. The scales of the Mate Selection Attitudes Questionnaire (Shahabi Farahani, 2018) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (<a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=zagrzZsAAAAJ&amp;hl=en&amp;oi=sra">Garnefski</a> and&nbsp;<a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=Fl2F6SkAAAAJ&amp;hl=en&amp;oi=sra">Kraaij</a>, 2006) were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of covariance.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results:</strong> The results of covariance analysis showed that the mental health literacy program led to the improvement of emotion regulation and attitudes towards choosing a mate in people on the verge of marriage (P&lt;0.01).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Considering the results of this study, it is believed that a mental health literacy program will help not only with emotion regulation but also with modifying mate selection attitudes.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Mental Health Literacy, Mental Health, Emotion Regulation, Mate Selection Attitudes.</p> Elahe Rezaei 1 Mahboobe Taher 2* Zahra Shabani 3 Abbas Ali Hossein Khanzadeh 4 Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Health Studies 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 10.22100/ijhs.v9i2.974 Communication Skills and Related Factors in Health Care Providers https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/958 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Communication skills have a significant impact on the medical, psychological, and social aspects of patient satisfaction. Furthermore, acquisition of these skills by the staff reduces their burnout level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the communication skills of medical personnel.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This descriptive study was performed on 280 medical personnel of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences in 2019. Data were collected through the standard Queendom Communication Skills Questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 34 items with the minimum score of 34 and the maximum score of 170. The data were analyzed using &nbsp;and T test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the participants was 32.52± 6.2 years and 82.3% of them were female. On average, the mean score of the communication skills of the participants was 107.94± 9. 3. Communication skill score was found to be optimal in this study. Mean work experience was significantly higher in the high communication skills group compared to the low communication skills group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Based on the results of this study, communication skills of medical personnel was at a desired level. Due to the importance of communication skills in patients and staff, and for the improvement of these skills in newly-recruited staff, it is recommended that their communication skills be assessed and training workshops be regularly held.</p> <p>Keys word: Communication Skill, Medical Personnel, satis</p> Somayeh Ramezani 1 Shima Naderi 2 Somayeh Shahhoseini 3 Hossein Sheybani 4* Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Health Studies 2022-05-08 2022-05-08 10.22100/ijhs.v9i1.958 Comparing the Effects of Solution-based Couple Therapy and Training of Couple Communication Program on the Style of Marital Conflict Resolution https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/955 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Marital conflicts are the result of a couple disagreeing about personal goals, motivations, values, or behavioral priorities. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the solution-based couple therapy and training of couple communication program (TCCP) on the marital conflict resolution style of women visiting counseling centers.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The present study was a quasi-experimental and pre-test-post-test with a control group. The statistical population of this study included all women with conflict (N=240) who were referred to specialized counseling centers for family consolidation in the 19th district of Tehran in 2020. The research sample consisted of 60 people who were selected by the available sampling method and were randomly assigned to three groups (two experimental groups and one control group). After performing the pre-test, solution-based couple therapy and TCCP were performed on the experimental groups, but the control group did not receive any treatment. In the end, a post-test was performed on all three groups. The research instrument included a Rahim Couples Conflict Resolution Styles Questionnaire and data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The significant level was set at 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that solution-based couple therapy and TCCP are effective in the marital conflict resolution style of women referring to counseling centers. Also, there is no significant difference between the effectiveness of solution-based couple therapy and TCCP on the marital conflict resolution style of women referring to counseling centers (Pvalue=0.025).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> solution-based couple therapy and training of couple communication programs can reduce the marital conflict of women referring to counseling centers to an acceptable level.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Solution-based couple therapy, Training program, Marital conflict, Women</p> Mitra Cheshmeh Noshi 1 Mokhtar Arefi 1* Karim Afshari Nia 1 Hassan Amiri 1 Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Health Studies 2022-05-29 2022-05-29 10.22100/ijhs.v9i2.955 The Effectiveness of Schema Therapy on Aggression and Emotion Dysregulation in Adolescent Girls with Self-harm https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/954 <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Many interventions currently recommended for young people whose self-harm are clinic-based, delivered by mental health clinicians, and primarily aimed to address the underlying mood and personality disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of schema therapy on aggression and emotion dysregulation in an adolescent girl with self-harm.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;The research method was semi-experimental with pre-test &amp; post-test design with the control group. The study population included all female patients with self-harm who had been referred to public and private Center for Psychiatry and Psychology, Aram, during November to January in Tehran District 3, Iran, in 2021. 30 people were selected through purposive sampling method and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n=15) and control (n=15). Questionnaires such as Aggression questionnaire (AGQ) and The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) were used for data collection. The emotional schema therapy was performed for 8 sessions, 90 minutes each for the experimental group, and the control group received none. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of covariance (ANOVA) on the SPSS software version 23 were used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study, participants ranged in age from 12 to 18 years old, with a mean of 15.53 years (SD = 1.84). Results suggest that the schema therapy approach had positive effects on aggression and emotion dysregulation in adolescent's girls with self-harm (P-value&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Study results showed that schema therapy for aggression and emotion dysregulation was a cost-benefit intervention for adolescent girls with self-harm aged between 12 and 18.</p> Mahboube Yavari Ramshe 1 Ramshe1 Mahshid Sharafi 2 Mohadeseh Nazari 3 Ali Mohammadi 4 Elham Ftros 5* Javad Seyed Jafari 6 Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Health Studies 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 10.22100/ijhs.v9i1.954 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Metacognitive Therapy and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy on Intrusive Thoughts of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/951 <p><strong>Background:</strong> According to WHO statistics, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is the tenth most disabling condition. Thus, this study aimed to compare the efficacy of metacognitive therapy (MCT) against Cognitive-Behavior Therapy(CBT)&nbsp; on intrusive thoughts in obsessive-compulsive disorder.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;In this study, a quasi-experimental design was used with pre-tests, post-test, and a control group. The study population was all patients who attended psychological clinics in Tehran, Iran, between August to September 2019. Using a purposeful sampling method, 24 OCD patients were selected from the study population, eight in every two experimental groups and eight in the control group. The experimental groups received 8, 120-minute sessions of therapy once a week. The study instruments were a questionnaire on demographic features and the Thought-Action fusion scale (TAFS). To analyze the data, inferential statistics (Multivariate Analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) by SPSS<sub>24</sub>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The results revealed that MCT and CBT treatments had a significant effect on variables (Pvalue&lt;0.05). As observed, there is a significant difference in all subscales between the two groups of experiment and control in pre-test and post-test, after removing the pre-test effect (Pvalue&lt;0.05). Moreover, findings showed that both approaches significantly differ from the control group when comparing variables between the two treatments. However, MCT treatment had the greatest effect.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Both MCT and CBT were found to be effective in reducing intrusive thoughts, though MCT had a greater reduction than CBT.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Metacognitive therapy, Cognitive-behavior therapy, Intrusive thoughts obsessive-compulsive disorder</p> Sahar Sharifi Shahrivar 1 Seyed Zabihallah Mosavian 2 Seyyedeh Nasrin Mousavinia 3 Neda Jamali Aghdavahlo 4 Neda Jamali Aghdavahlo 4 Sara Masoumi 5* Javad Seyed Jafari 6 Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Health Studies 2022-05-08 2022-05-08 10.22100/ijhs.v9i1.951 Structural Model of the Relationship between Pathological Personality Traits and Adolescents' Tendency to Self-Harm Behavior: The Mediating role of Hyper-Competitive Attitude https://ijhs.shmu.ac.ir/index.php/ijhs/article/view/949 <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Self-harm is more prevalent than previously thought in adolescent and young adult populations. This study aimed to test the structural model of the relationship between pathological personality traits and adolescents' tendency to self-harm behavior based on the mediating role of hyper-competitive attitude.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 205 girls with self-damage selected for sampling during 3 months (September to December) in Teheran, Iran, 2021. The participants were selected through snowball sampling method and answered the Competitive Attitude Scale (CAS); Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and Self-Harm Inventory (SHI) questionnaires. The results were analyzed through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), AMOS18 software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Findings of the structural model test showed that each of the dimensions of abnormal personality has a positive effect on hyper-competitive attitude, also the effect of extreme competition on self-harm was positive and significant. On the other hand, the mediating role of hyper-competitive attitude in the relationship between abnormal personality dimensions and self-harm was confirmed. Fit indices with values (X2 / df = 2.49, RMSEA = 0.08, GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98) also showed that the tested model has an acceptable fit with the concept model.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>: &nbsp;</strong>Individuals suffering from pathological personalities and self-harm tendencies exhibited hyper-competitive attitudes. In assessment and treatment settings, our findings provide the best prognostic information to explain psychopathology and to highlight abnormal personality traits and self-harm behaviors in adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pathological personality traits, Adolescent, Self-harm behavior, Hyper-competitive attitude</p> <div id="heithe-itb" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</div> Asal Najian 1 Mohsen Kachooei 2* Hojjatollah Farahani 3 Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Health Studies 2022-06-21 2022-06-21