The Effectiveness of Solution-focused Strategies on Coronavirus Anxiety and Mental Toughness in Tehran Female Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic




Solution-oriented strategic approach, Coronary anxiety, Mental toughness, Female students, COVID-19 Pandemic


Background: A serious and urgent concern for the health and well-being of the student population is Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a solution-oriented strategic approach on coronary anxiety and mental toughness of female students during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Methods: The research method was semi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design with the control group. The statistical population included all female students of the Payame Noor University of Tehran during the corona outbreak in the academic year 2020-2021. 32 people were selected by purposive sampling method and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n=16) and control (n=16). Questionnaires such as coronary anxiety and mental toughness were used for data collection. The solution-oriented strategic approach was performed for 8 sessions, 90 minutes each for the experimental group, and the control group received none. To analyze data, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of covariance (ANOVA) was applied as main statistical procedures.

Results: The results showed that the Solution-oriented strategic approach was effective in improving mental endurance and coronary anxiety of female students during coronary heart disease and these results continued until the follow-up stage (Pvalue<0.001).

Conclusions: This study showed that the solution-based approach could assist references incorrectly identifying the risks, barriers, and crisis points of their lives and in providing them with appropriate insight into the capabilities and resources of the individual's support system.

Keywords: Solution-oriented strategic approach, Coronary anxiety, Mental toughness, Female students, COVID-19 Pandemic


1. Temsah MH, Al-Sohime F, Alamro N, Al-Eyadhy A, Al-Hasan K, Jamal A, Al-Maglouth I, Aljamaan F, Al Amri M, Barry M, Al-Subaie S, Somily AM. The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country. J Infect Public Health. 2020 Jun;13(6):877-882. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.05.021. Epub 2020 May 29. Erratum in: J Infect Public Health. 2020 Oct;13(10):1599. PMID: 32505461; PMCID: PMC7256548.
2. Momenjoo N, Rabbani R, Mirzaei Fandokht O, Ramezani Ghahderijani Z. Role of Religious Coping and Moral Intelligence in Predicting Students' Psychological Hardiness during the Coronavirus Epidemic. psj. 2021; 19 (4) :25-32.
3. Adamu A, Mchunu G, Naidoo JR. Women living with HIV in Nigeria: Predictive influence of hardiness on perceived stress. Afr J AIDS Res. 2021 Mar;20(1):100-106. doi: 10.2989/16085906.2021.1879884.
4. Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Rahman MS, Zaki R, Tan Z, Bibi S, Baghbanzadeh M, Aghamohammadi N, Zhang W, Haque U. The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Jun 1;49(3):717-726. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyaa033. PMID: 32086938; PMCID: PMC7197734.
5. MacArthur KR, Cox MJ, Egan C, Komer L. Pre-Existing Social Conditions: A Call to Prevent the Perpetuation of Gender Inequalities in Research Production during COVID-19. International Journal of Medical Students. 2020 Dec 17;8(3):217-9.
6. Alipour A, Ghadami A, Alipour Z, Abdollahzadeh H. Preliminary validation of the Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in the Iranian sample. Quarterly Journal of Health Psychology. 2020 Feb 20;8(32):163-75. doi: 10.30473/hpj.2020.52023.4756
7. Asnaani A, Tyler J, McCann J, Brown L, Zang Y. Anxiety sensitivity and emotion regulation as mechanisms of successful CBT outcome for anxiety-related disorders in a naturalistic treatment setting. J Affect Disord. 2020 Apr 15; 267:86-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.160. Epub 2020 Jan 28. PMID: 32063577.
8. Shim E, Tariq A, Choi W, Lee Y, Chowell G. Transmission potential and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Apr; 93:339-344. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.031.
9. Kowarsch M, Jabbour J. Solution-oriented global environmental assessments: Opportunities and challenges. Environmental Science & Policy. 2017 Nov 1; 77:187-92. doi:10.1016/J.ENVSCI.2017.08.013
10. Choi JJ. The Role of the Solution-Focused Brief Therapist in Client-Led Problem Talks, The American Journal of Family Therapy, 2021;49:4, 356-372, doi: 10.1080/01926187.2020.1816514
11. Aboobakri Makoei S, Kaboli K, Qasemi S, Chagosaz M, Safa S, Karami S. Effect of Short-term Solution-focused Approach on the Coping Strategies and Mental Toughness of Outstanding Students. JOEC. 2021; 21 (1) :126-115URL:
12. Chen S. An online solution focused brief therapy for adolescent anxiety during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2020;21: 402.
13. Grant AM, Gerrard B. Comparing problem-focused, solution-focused and combined problem-focused/solution-focused coaching approach: Solution-focused coaching questions mitigate the negative impact of dysfunctional attitudes. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice. 2020 Jan 2;13(1):61-77.
14. Clough P, Earle K, Sewell D. Mental toughness: The concept and its measurement. Solutions in sport psychology. 2002:32-43.
15. Kashani VO, Shiri H, Manaseri H. Psychometric Properties and Normalization of Persian Version of Mental Toughness Scale (MTS)', Research on Educational Sport, 2014;3(7):83-98. https://doi.org20.1001.1.25382721.1393.
16. Barzegar E, Boostanipoor A, Fotoohabady K, Zohrei E, Ebrahimi S. The Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on Reduction Social Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Stuttering. Research in Clinical Psychology and Counseling. 2019 Aug 23;9(1):69-85. 10.22067/IJAP.V9I1.72616
17. Menec VH, Chipperfield JG, Perry RP. Self-perceptions of health: A prospective analysis of mortality, control, and health. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 1999 Mar 1;54(2):P85-93.
18. Jenkins C, Germaine C. Solution-oriented learning to build resilience in mental health nursing students and recently qualified nurses. Mental Health Practice. 2018 May 8;21(7). doi: 10.7748/mhp. 2018.e1284
19. Jernigan DB, COVID C, Team R. Update: public health response to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak—United States, February 24, 2020. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2020 Feb 28;69(8):216. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6908e1
20. James RG, Simon W. The psychological effects of quarantining a city.[Last accessed on 2020 Jun 26]. BMJ. 2020;368:m313. doi:
21. Stanely N, Jacob BG, Masys AJ, Parikh JE, Izurieta RI, Ortiz M. Global Health Security and Disaster Forensics: A solution oriented approach to mapping public health vulnerabilities through predictive analytics. InE-Proceedings of the 38th IAHR World Congress 2019 Sep 1 (pp. 1-6). doi:10.3850/38WC092019-1883







How to Cite

The Effectiveness of Solution-focused Strategies on Coronavirus Anxiety and Mental Toughness in Tehran Female Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. (2022). International Journal of Health Studies, 8(4), 13-17.